Nancy Nanchin Katu-Ogundimu


This paper examined how music as a strategic communication tool is providing a platform for female Muslim rappers to (re) construct narratives about their struggles and identities as post-September 11 Muslims. This comes against the backdrop of the rise of islamophobia and anti-Muslimism globally. The paper provides an overview of the history of hip hop music, Islam and hip hop, the place of music in Islam and the place of Muslim women in the industry. Data for this paper was analyzed qualitatively. Specifically, a lyrical analysis of fifteen songs produced by selected female Muslim rappers in the United States and Europe was conducted. Results of the study show that the female Muslim Hip Hoppers are using their music to challenge what they view as the dominant interpretation of Islamic teachings. The findings also show that are using music to present deliberate messages about their as identities and struggles as Muslim women in a patriarchal hip hop industry.


Hip Hop, Muslim, Female Rappers, Identity, Textual Analysis

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