Destiny E. Agwanwo (Ph.D), Rowland Olumati (Ph.D)


The focus of this paper was on spiritual intelligence as an aspect of crime control: evidence from some selected law enforcement agents. The researchers adopted the socio-metry method of qualitative research. The study utilized both the primary and secondary method of data collection. Key informants interviews (KII) were conducted with some of the law enforcement agents identified to be spiritually intelligent so as to get the much needed information from them on spiritual intelligence and how it has helped them in carrying out their crime control responsibility. The findings of the paper showed that crime rate has become a huge social problem and government efforts to avert the problems have proven abortive as some of the criminals adopt spiritual means in perpetrating some of these crimes. Hence, the recourse to spiritual intelligence as a policing strategy to curb or control some of these crimes by some law enforcement agents. The findings also revealed that spiritual intelligence is helpful in the control of crime. The paper recommends a mix of physical and spiritual intelligence as panacea to crime problems in Nigeria.


Spiritual Intelligence, Strategy, Crime Control, Law Enforcement, Agents, Cosmos

Full Text:



Abdulkadir, M. B. (2004). Measuring police effectiveness in Nigeria: an evaluation of input and output in crime and policing in Nigeria: challenges and options. Lagos: CLEEN Foundation.

Alumona, S. C. (2016). Spirituality and decision-making in industrial organization: The current views. Global Journal of Applied, Management and Social Sciences. 12: 175-185.

Amram, Y. (2007). The seven dimensions of spiritual intelligence: An economical grounded theory. Paper presented at the 115th Annual Conference of American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA. August 17-20.

Archna, V. & Rainu. G. (2018). Impact of spiritual intelligence on work ethics of secondary school teachers. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 8(11) 70-85.

Assi, V. E. and Ukummi, S. A. (2018). Health practices and longevity. A study of the elderly in Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 16(1): 131-151.

Emmons, R. A. (2000). Is spirituality an intelligence? Motivation, Cognition and the psychology of Ultimate Concern. International Journal for Psychology of Religion, 0(1) 3-26.

Giordano, P. C., Longmore, M. A., Schroeder, R. D. and Seffrin, P. M. (2008). A Life-course perspective on spirituality and desistance from crime. Criminology, 46(1): 99-132.

Goswami, S. (2014). Spiritual dimension of Indian culture. Global Journal of Human Social Science, XIV(I) 13-19.

Hashim, A. J. C. & Musa R. (2014). Importance of Spiritual Intelligence (SQ) and Spiritual Congruence (SC) : Factors that may contribute to individuals attitude towards purchasing decision in Halal Cosmetics. Global Journal of Human Social Science 14(1) 23-29.

Heritage, J. (1984). Garfinkel and ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Igiebor, N., Ilori K. & Edekpayi, B. (1986, December 15). Anini: End of the big hunt. NewsWatch.

Leaman, J. M. (2009). Religion, Spirituality, Corruption and development: Causal links and relationships. Ph.D Thesis submitted to the Graduate School, University of Pittsburgh.

Levin, M. (2000). Spiritual Intelligence: Awakening the power of your spirituality and intuition. Londer: Hodder and Stoughton.

Lowenthal, M. M. (2006). Intelligence: from secret to policy. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Melvin, O. A. and Ayotunde, T. (2011). Spirituality in cybercrime (Yahoo Yahoo) activities among youths in South West Nigeria. www.irma-international.org.

Noble, K. (2001). Riding the Windhorse: Spiritual intelligence and the growth of the self. New Jersey: Hamton Press.

Nwolise, O. B. C. (2012). Spiritual dimension of human security and national security. Political Science Departmental Lecture, University of Ibadan.

Nwolise, O. B. C. (2015). Motion for serious focus of research on the spiritual dimension of human security and natonal security. Studies in Politics and Society, 3 (1): 1-14.

Oludayo, T. (2013). A spiritual dimension to cybercrime in Nigeria: the “Yahoo Plus” phenomenon. Human Affairs, 23(4): 689-705.

Olusakin V. (2014) Medicine, Witchcraft and sorcery in Africa: A Reader. Enhance Digital Press, Port Harcourt.

Onigbinde, A. (2000). Discourse in conceptual relationship: Philosophy and the social sciences. Ibadan: Frontline Resources.

Salemink, O. (2010). Ritual efficacy, spiritual security and human security: spirit mediumship in contemporary Vietnam. In Eriksen, T. H., Bal, E. and Salemink, O. (ed). A world of insecurity: Anthropological Perspectives on Human Security. London: Pluto Press.

Schur, M.E. (1969). Our criminal society: the social and legal sources of crime in America. America: Spectrum Book.

Sodhi, R. (2016). Emotional Intelligence and Spirituality: A Review. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4(1) 71-86.

Vegvari, D. R. (2017). The divinity of crime: How spirituality can strengthen the resilience of criminal organizations. CUNY Academic Works, John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

Vialle, W. J. (2007). Spiritual Intelligence: An important dimension of giftedness. In Tiri, K. (ed) Values and foundations in gifted education. Bern. Peter Lang.- 171-186.

Williams, O. (2007). Ensuring peace by all any means necessary: politics, agenda and modus operandi of the Bakassi Boys. In Babawale, T. Urban violence, ethnic militias and the challenge of democratic consolidation in Nigeria. (Edt). Ibadan: Concept Publishers.

Zohar, D & Marshall, I. (2000). Spiritual intelligence: The ultimate intelligence. New York: Boomsbury.

Zukav, G. and Francis, L. (2001). The heart of the soul: Emotional awareness. London: Simon and Schuster Source.


  • There are currently no refbacks.